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qualitative user research methods

One way of doing this is to have another person who might have a different perspective help you analyze your data. User research focuses on understanding user behaviors, needs, and motivations through observation techniques, task analysis, and other feedback methodologies. Practical tips to boost your site conversions. This distinction can be summed up by contrasting \"what people say\" versus \"what people do\" (very often the two are quite different). Researchers meet with test participants in their own natural context (an environment where... Diary studies. When you’re in the beginning stages of your design project and you have just finished some highly informative interviews, It’s well understood that user research is what makes for the best user experiences but what are the right user research, The exact history of the contextual interview in user research is a little murky. Individual Interviews. Selecting a method to collect qualitative data is only half the process. Sticktail. Qualitative methods include ethnography, grounded theory, discourse analysis, and interpretative phenomenological analysis. You have been in the field talking to users and you now find yourself with a massive amount of audio, notes, video, pict. Copyright terms and licence: CC0. While it is not meant to be conclusive in and of itself, here are a few tips for analyzing qualitative research data. Are you ready to learn how? Both working in an unbiased way and discussing your interpretations with other people help ensure that your research reflects the nature of the topic you are investigating, but it is also important that you choose the research method that best fits your research topic. Are you conducting market research? Objectivity Through Intersubjective Knowledge Different user research methods have different guidelines for best practice. methods, and some requiring qualitative methods. You can choose to study these using either quantitative or qualitative research methods. In quantitative methods such as surveys, analytics, and formal experiments, the researcher seeks to measure aspects of users and user behavior in a way that can be quantified and used for statistical analysis. And how engaging do you find them? Objections do not always mean that your interpretation is wrong, but they add to your understanding of your participants nonetheless. Online focus groups are similar to in-person focus groups, except that they are more cost-efficient and allow you to reach more people. “Code” the unstructured data into something that can be summarized with tables or charts. The results of qualitative methods are more descriptive and the inferences can be drawn quite easily from the data that is obtained. This way, you get to see their actual shopping behavior, as opposed to just what they would claim on a written survey. With this in mind, let’s get started on qualitative user research methods: 1. These methods include one-on-one interviews, observational research, and open-ended surveys. The in-depth interview is one of the most common types of qualitative research … 3 qualitative research methods & what you’ll learn from them Method 1: heuristic analysis. In this article, we'll explore subcategories of the ethnographic model and grounded theory, which are the easiest to conduct online. You can encounter the same issues when you do usability tests. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-SA 3.0. The other advantage is that the different members of the group can bounce off each other’s thoughts and ideas, which means you’ll get even greater insights. Using an extreme example, but one that shows up just how glaringly bad this practice can get, imagine yourself being asked questions by a researcher who is adamant that the world is flat (and pretend you hadn’t been ready to rebuff his view when you entered the interview room). That way, you will enable a more scientific transfer of facts, ground your research in firmer reality, and vastly increase the likelihood that your projects end up engaging with real-world users in the way you hope. Research methods have different attributes and are good for different things, so what results you can get depend on what research method you choose. Here, we have focused on the positive attributes of qualitative user research and what it means to be objective in qualitative user research. With that in mind, let’s look at them in more detail. It can involve several different methods including contextual observation, ethnographic studies, interviews, field studies, and moderated usability tests. This is another great way to get candid insight in a comfortable, familiar setting. WP Mail SMTP ... Qualitative Studies. You can also choose to share and discuss your observations openly with your team to see if they have a different interpretation of your research. Here are some techniques you can use for qual and quant research: Analytics (Quant) Adding web or app analytics to your product is a great way to get quant data. An in-person observation of shopping behavior (or a “shop-along”) allows you to actually watch the consumer react to your product in-store. If you do your job dutifully, the survey answers can be numerically summarized without bias from your own opinion or personal experience with exercise. Popular qualitative methods include: Interviews. Personas are used as a method in qualitative user research to help focus decisions by adding a layer of real-world consideration to the conversation. Qualitative research is a good first step to take when conducting your market research. It’s worth mentioning that usability testing is a qualitative research method. Qualitative Research Method. To get the most out of your online surveys, check out our survey best practices. You’ll gain a lot of interesting insights! For instance, many usability tests combine quantitative measures of (e.g.) It can be days or months and depends on what you are investigating. Now it’s your turn. For example, qualitative research methods will help a team validate their design direction while … Unleash the power of OptinMonster on your website today! At this point you may be wondering, how do you actually analyze qualitative data after you’ve gathered it? Top Tools Alert: 5 Best Survey Data Visualization Tools (In-Depth Comparison), For interviews and focus groups, have the moderator write up some key points that they heard. Here, we'll consider the differences between qualitative and quantitative research and explain what the best practices are when you do qualitative user research. These groups are meant to provide a safe and comfortable environment for your users to talk about their thoughts and feelings surrounding your product. Qualitative methods such as interviews, ethnographic field studies, and (to some degree) usability tests are often more exploratory and seek to get a more in-depth understanding of the individual users’ or user group’s experiences, motivations, and everyday lives. This data can generally be split into two types. So to carry out unbiased research, it's likewise vital to be systematic when you analyze interviews—to ensure that you truly explore our results and don’t just search for the results that you expected to get at the beginning of the project. In-depth interview. Ann Blandford. Finally, you can ensure that your research participants agree with your observations and interpretations by continually sharing them with them. Because the interview is similar to a conversation, your results will depend on how you ask follow-up questions to the participants’ answers – and how you do that will to some extent depend on your personality and your own experience with exercise. The purpose of attitudinal research is usually to understand or measure people's stated beliefs, which is why attitudinal research is used heavily in marketing departments.While most usability studies should rely more on behavior, methods that use self-reported information can still be quite useful to designers. That’s not really all that scientific, is it? While good ideas are great, it’s important that we still do the interviews with an open mind about how people feel about exercise partners. Have your user (or potential user) keep a journal or a diary to document their experience with your topic or your product. What frustrates you in regard to [your topic]? Similarly, we can use interviews to talk to participants about the usability of a user interface, but observing how they interact with the user interface during a usability test (or a combination of test and interview) will probably give a more accurate picture of what they find difficult. Qualitative)User)) Research)Methods Mattias)Arvola. While quantitative research answers the what, where, when and who of decision making, qualitative research also answers the why and how. It starts by finding out where we are gonna go, who we are going to speak to, what is their world and really stepping into their shoes. For example, some coded responses to the question “When do you wear a watch?” might be 1—never, 2—once in a while, 3—everyday, etc. Long-term savings. online design school globally. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY 2.0. Qualitative research is designed to reveal the meaning that informs the action or outcomes that are typically measured by quantitative research. Our Sites The goal of quantitative research, on the other hand, is to quantify and generalize the results so that the marketer can come to a final conclusion about the best course of action. Participants must answer predefined questions about their exercise habits such as “How many hours per week do you exercise?”. So qualitative researchers investigate meanings, interpretations, symbols, and the processes and relations of social life. Here are a few initial questions you could ask: Focus groups are generally conducted in-person. They don’t represent what everyone does when doing qualitative user research, and sometimes circumstances are such that you cannot live up to all of them. or through our The advantage of this method is that you get to observe user behavior in a natural, comfortable environment. You can’t consider the information you collect here as “statistically significant.” If, on the other hand, you were doing an interview, you could change the direction of your questions if you discovered that the participant does not know what a fitness tracker is. Diary studies are a log of habits, behaviours and activities that a person documents over a period. One way that this is useful is by highlighting challenges that arise from shelf display issues, clutter, or out of stock issues. Here's an overview of 5 key methods beyond standard usability testing that are especially useful for early discovery studies. A qualitative UX research method will focus on a smaller sample, around 5 to 15 people depending on the target and the project, because it will require more depth. Qualitative and quantitative user research. Either way, it will allow you to capture your user’s actual voice, which is extremely valuable for marketing copy. Author/Copyright holder: jesslef. 7 Best WordPress LMS Plugins to Build a Killer Online Course, 9 Best Website Builders For Small Business Compared (Pros and Cons), 16 Clever FOMO Marketing Examples to Boost Your Sales, 4 Best Mailchimp Alternatives to Crush Email Marketing in 2020, Conduct market research when traditional surveys are not available (e.g. The term ‘subjective’ refers to the personal opinions and sentiments of the participants, which are individual to them; for example, 90% of users perhaps felt that the clicks required to complete the task were “too many” (we see these words often come up, in fact). However, qualitative research should still strive for objectivity, although in a different way from quantitative research. It can provide with details about human behavior, emotion, and personality characteristics that quantitative studies can’t match. Unsurprisingly, receiving a, Research can be compared to interacting with the ocean. Listening in to real-world conversations is a really powerful way to get a deeper understanding of their desires, frustrations, and motivations. Qualitative research … We’ll share the qualitative research methods in just a moment, but before we dive in, let’s briefly discuss the basics. For instance, it only makes sense to ask a participant how often he uses a fitness tracker while exercising if he does—in fact—exercise from time to time and knows what a fitness tracker is. WPBeginner If they say something interesting, ask followup questions that dig deeper. Have questions? This way, they can feel free to simply be themselves, and you’ll get a more realistic view of how your product is being used. We stated earlier that quantitative research seeks to collect objective measurements about an external reality without any influence or bias from the researcher and that qualitative research is not objective in the same way, because the researcher’s personality and experience will always, to some extent, influence the results. 4 minute video by 2020-03-27 4. If you use a quantitative method, you could create an online survey and distribute it to a large number of participants. An individual interview can be conducted over the phone, Skype, or in person. Doing this requires that everyone be prepared to be open and curious about the data. During these activities, observe your users having a dialogue with their friends. The advantage of using in-person focus groups is that you get to see the consumer’s verbal and non-verbal reaction to your product or advertising. Getting a sample of users who can represent the entire user population in a statistically meaningful way often requires many research participants. For us to start a design project without that At the same time, imagine how he stops writing and frowns when you mention that you have, however, noticed the earth’s curvature from an airplane window... or how he asks you what your eyesight is like when you try to argue the point that everything beyond the horizon isn’t visible, due to the earth’s curvature. For instance, if you want to lobby for better access to health care in an area where user fees have been introduced, you might first undertake a Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0, Course: User Research – Methods and Best Practices: Author/Copyright holder: St Stev. You should go into the interview with some questions prepared ahead of time, but don’t feel like you need to stick to a script. Bad Design vs. Good Design: 5 Examples We can Learn From,, Through being adequate to the object investigated. We're glad you have chosen to leave a comment. This can lead to two problematic misunderstandings. Sarah Gibbons; Sarah Gibbons; Topics: qualitative studies,Research Methods,interviewing users,diary studies. In qualitative methods, the researcher accepts that he/she is to some degree a co-creator of research results, so the results are not completely objective and reproducible. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Please keep in mind that all comments are moderated according to our privacy policy, and all links are nofollow. You can use both qualitative and quantitative measures to study user behavior like people’s exercise habits. … I conducted a workshop at UX Homegrown conference on “How to use Google Analytics in User … The two are complementary to each other. 2 The process has to begin with some kind of immersion in context and exposure to people who are perhaps experiencing that aspect of life right now. Sticktail is a user research management platform for collecting, searching, organising and … This can be handwritten or digital. These include the phenomenological model, the ethnographic model, grounded theory, case study, historical model and the narrative model. Just take your notes and put them into a word cloud generator, such as When conducting customer surveys, the goal isn’t collecting as much information as you want to, rather, the right information. Then you’ll be able to easily spot the most prominent words. Well, first of all, qualitative research should not be used instead of quantitative research. They also offer a quick and inexpensive way to test and prioritize features throughout development. Create a “word cloud” out of the keywords being used by the consumer. Qualitative research methods originated in the social and behavioral sciences. Objectivity through intersubjective knowledge refers to an understanding of objectivity as something that multiple people agree on. The library is but one small component of today’s information environment, and the average user/consumer probably prefers more immediate access to information … If you think you already know where the problems with the interface are, it’s important to keep an open mind so that you don’t overlook problems that you did not expect or accidentally lead the user to find the same problems as you. If we think of the exercise example, a quantitative survey requires that you know enough about your participants and how they exercise to know what questions are the most relevant to ask in your questionnaire. While qualitative user research takes some upfront cost, there are many benefits in the long term because … Sometimes, researchers use the terms ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ to describe the data collected through quantitative and qualitative methods. We shared 7 qualitative research methods that you can use to better understand your user or target customer. Here, we'll focus on how to do qualitative user research of a high quality. The idea is to ask your ideal user (or an existing customer) a series of questions and follow-ups to learn what motivates them to buy a product like yours. All methods used in user research can be classified as either qualitative research or quantitative research. Quite often, in a usability test, you might combine both types of methods in order to interpret results. Summary: Qualitative user research is invaluable for UX design. Qualitative research relies on data obtained by the researcher from first-hand observation, interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, participant-observation, recordings made in natural settings, documents, and artifacts. The first step in doing user research right is to understand best practices for the method you are using, and why best practice is, in fact, best practice. “Semi-structured qualitative studies.” Qualitative methods can give you an in-depth understanding of something in ways that are impossible to reduce to numbers. If you are interested in learning more about quantitative and qualitative research, you can read: John W. Creswell (2014) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 4th Edition. Let’s picture a scenario to illustrate this—imagine you're testing the interface of a mobile app for the task of uploading a new photo and participants completed the task on average in 5.5 seconds and clicking on the various control options 6.8 times. Once you have a clear understanding of your customers, then follow this step-by-step guide to using email marketing to generate consistent leads and sales for your business. Qualitative research methods are designed to help researchers understand people and the social and cultural contexts within which they live” (Myers, 2009). After all, we humans have this tendency to ‘misremember’ things, be it because we’re so used to an activity that we stop being mindful of what we do in it, or because we like to picture ourselves as being that bit more adept than we are, or because we might be prone to self-deprecation and humility dilutes the scale of our expertise. time and errors with qualitative methods such as observations and interviews. In the exercise example, the interview reflects the participants’ memories and opinions about how they exercise, but a form of observation of their exercise might reveal a truer picture of how they exercise. Really try to put yourself in their shoes, and try to figure out what makes them tick. Since qualitative data is unstructured, it can be tricky to draw conclusions from it, let alone present your findings. Steinar Kvale (1996) InterViews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. However well trained we are as user researchers, there will be times when we will need the help of others — we may lack understanding of a certain theory, a particular research method, or software. Qualitative methods can provide you with more detail about a situation or an answer because you can always follow up with new questions or go back to your participants for more detail. If the question is a qualitative one, then the most appropriate and rigorous way of answering it is to use qualitative methods. With 95,076 graduates, the Interaction Design Foundation is the biggest It can be in-person or via video-conferencing tools like Skype or Google Hangouts. Researchers focus on smaller user samples—e.g., in interviews—to reveal data such as user attitudes, behaviors and hidden factors: insights which guide better designs. If I had a magic wand and could give you anything you want, what do you most desire? When we do qualitative research, we should strive to be open and unbiased, so our research represents the participants’ perspectives as much as possible. SAGE Publications. online contact form. Instead, you work with the research participants to explore what the world looks like from their perspectives, or you interpret your own observations of each participant’s reality. You could also choose to share your analysis or report with the participants to see if they have any comments or objections to your findings. Sometimes, we think of qualitative user research as something we choose to do when we lack the time and resources to do proper quantitative research. Common approaches include grounded theory, ethnography, action research, phenomenological research, and narrative research. If you ask me about my yoga exercise, my answers might be biased by what I wish my skill level and location to be rather than an accurate reflection of what these really look like (and no, unfortunately, this is not a picture of the author doing yoga). It is a qualitative user research methods study that can be continued for any length of time. SeedProd Then, simply observe the dialogue. A researcher meets with study participants one-on-one to discuss topics around a product. You can read more about the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative research here: In qualitative user research, that means ensuring that you are not the only person who interprets your data the way you do. If you use a qualitative method, you could choose to do interviews with a limited number of participants, where you talk to the participants about when, where, and how they exercise. In the exercise interview example, we could have an expectation that people would be more motivated to exercise if they had an exercise partner, and we might even already have a good idea for an app that could help people find an exercise partner. Explore the general concept for your product, Evaluate your advertising copy and imagery. You will always work with a smaller sample size: around 5 usability tests per research round. It’s important that we still ask open and explorative questions and that we don’t put words in the participant’s mouth by asking leading questions. Finally, qualitative research methods do have the advantage in that they often require less time and fewer resources than quantitative research methods do; so, they're easier to fit into—e.g.—an iterative development process. The goal of qualitative research is to gain insights into the deeper motives behind consumer purchases. So, quantitative research methods seek to measure an objective reality that exists externally from the researcher, and we have clear guidelines showing how to ensure that the research truly is objective and valid. Common qualitative techniques in design research include contextual analysis, ethnography, structured interview, and observation. In general, there are six types of qualitative research. ... Qualitative research methods. Qualitative research in and of itself is not conclusive. This UX research method is one of the most popular qualitative methods. It was first alluded to in a paper by, The first step in any User Experience or Design Thinking process should involve getting to know your users. with embarrassing or “touchy” questions), Conduct market research when more structured research is not possible. Both methods of user research play important roles in product development. Go ahead and begin your market research by trying one of the techniques above. Author/Copyright holder: Kyle Cassidy. From: Qualitative Research and the Modern Library, 2011. Method 2: online surveys. You must handle a lot of things at once to ensure that your participants ar. TrustPulse Qualitative research is important for gaining a broad understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations behind consumer decisions. Since no one can start a user research project without any kind of expectations or previous knowledge about the topic of investigation, we need to be consciously aware of any expectations and bias that we have when we do start one; if we aren’t, our expectations and bias might end up controlling us. Comparing research methods is a bit like comparing apples and oranges — they have different qualities. Customer surveys. What is Design Thinking and Why Is It So Popular? For example: “Common concerns among participants in regard to our pizza were cheese overuse, greasiness, and bland sauce.”. Mary Fernandez is a professional blogger. Hero Image: Author/Copyright holder: Dave. An individual interview can be conducted over the phone, Skype, or in person. Personas are created based on real user research using the methods listed in this article. Let’s dive into the 7 qualitative research techniques. So, if your participants do not use fitness trackers, an interview allows you to ask them “Why not?” in a way that is open to all kinds of answers, whereas a survey requires you to list a limited number of possible reasons. Qualitative user research is a direct assessment of behavior based on observation. 3. This allows you to get an uninterrupted view of your user’s attitudes and behaviors. Qualitative research is used to understand how people experience the world. You don’t want to waste your time doing research that does not truly represent your users’ opinions and behaviors. Thus, we'll only bring up quantitative user research methods to highlight the differences between the types of research; however, before we go any further, we should mention that combining the methods often makes sense. Similarly, it is important that we don’t simply search for places where participants have stated that they would like an exercise partner when we analyze the results, but that we are open and explorative about what has actually been said. In many cases, it’s recommended to pair qualitative methods with quantitative to get the best results. Qualitative research is one of the best tools to identify behaviors and patterns governing social conditions. It’s important that you don’t become a tour guide who leads your participants to where you think the important sights are, because it will prevent you from discovering anything new. This technique can provide more detailed insights into the user experience of individual users and is best used at the beginning of the research phase or at the end of a usability test. If we are not open to the participant’s point of view, there is no reason to carry out the user research. RafflePress. Ethnographic field studies. That researcher isn’t doing qualitative research—he’s out to confirm his beliefs by selectively picking at what you’re telling him, often lifting it out of context. Five most popular types of qualitative research are: You don’t have to know in advance exactly what questions make the most sense for your research to ask, because you can keep an open mind and change your focus based on what the participant does or says. That’s it! When startin, You have gotten a green light from your stakeholders to conduct some user research for your design project, and you thin, Honestly, how much do you enjoy reading research reports? On the surface, we may see calm beauty or turbulence; however, w, Carrying out user interviews can be chaotic! Obviously, this means that it’s not like data analysis. Author/Copyright holder: frankieleon. However, it is used to…. There are different types of qualitative research methods like an in-depth interview, focus groups, ethnographic research, content analysis, case study research that are usually used. Objectivity through intersubjective knowledge refers … To get meaningful results, you need both types of data. Great! The results of qualitative research are usually not expressed numerically, but rather as themes or categories that have occurred during the research. Instead, you should become a co-explorer and see things from your participant’s perspective. That way, you can compare your observations to see if you agree. Join 237,180 designers and get It goes a step beyond quantitative data by providing the reasons and rationale behind a phenomenon, which cannot be explored quantitatively. But it is also necessary to recruit your core target, with limited profile variations, in order to consolidate results. Qualitative research: qualitative research methods are generally focused on specific experiences, often through some form of personal interview or narrative, and typically generate non-numerical results. You may also interact with consumers to get deeper insights during the shopping process, to get feedback on package design, for example. This means that it can seem unclear how to perform qualitative research that truly represents a user’s perspective rather than your own biased understanding of his or her perspective.. Email Marketing vs. Social Media: Is There a Clear Winner? According to Wired’s 7 Things Your Company Gets Wrong About User Research, “Quantitative methods let us test our assumptions, and qualitative research lets us find out what we don’t know.” While numbers are great, they really don’t tell the whole story. Although 5.5 seconds appears to be a short amount of time to complete a task, if the 6.8 clicks required for completing it are “too many” according to your participants, then clearly you need to redesign your interface. The term ‘objective’ refers to indisputable observations (facts) made during an experiment. Use social media to your advantage by creating communities of people who are interested in your topic, and fostering a conversation. Let’s look at each misunderstanding in turn. Check our frequently asked questions. In this guide, we’ll share 7 qualitative research methods for understanding your user. It’s about understanding people’s practices. Let's have a personal and meaningful conversation. MonsterInsights Have you bought [your type of product] before? Reach us at Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. Qualitative data can be collected in a variety of … Also, it’s important to understand that quantitative and qualitative user research methods are not opponents; they are different components to be considered when making data-informed decisions. SAGE Publications. If you understand this, you can ensure that your own user research is truly relevant, you can evaluate the validity of other people’s research results, and you can explain the benefits of using a certain method to stakeholders. While time and resources certainly play a factor when planning user research, qualitative research has merit in its own right. Do NOT use keywords in the name field. Why use qualitative research as opposed to quantitative research? Qualitative market research is any research conducted using observation or unstructured questioning. With qualitative research methods, you cannot measure a completely objective reality that is not in any way influenced by the researcher. Qualitative user research is an assessment of behavior. Best practice for quantitative methods is to collect objective measurements that are unbiased by the researcher’s hypotheses, presence, and personality. Join 1,000,000+ who get more subscribers and customers with the power of OptinMonster. User research methods are often divided into quantitative and qualitative methods. Qualitative testing—which can take the form of interviews or other directly-observed usability tests—tends to be exploratory and with the goal of gaining a more in-depth understanding of the user’s experience. We can sum up how to be objective when engaging in such research with the following best practices: These are best practices. It’s about understanding people’s beliefs and practices on their terms. That's a waste of both your and your research participants’ time, and it’s bad for business. In his classic book Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, professor of psychology Steinar Kvale proposes three ways in which qualitative research can strive for objectivity: Each of these tells us something about how we should do qualitative research so that it is methodical and structured. Research is adequate to the object it investigates when the results show the real nature of the object. No matter how big or small your user research project is, if you're going to do user research, you want to make sure you do it right. We were founded in 2002. Truth be told, this distinction isn’t binary – some methods find themselves somewhere in the middle of the qualitative-quantitative spectrum, as they bear some aspects of both research paradigms. Picture his glee, for instance, when you admit that the sidewalk outside your home is flat, that every pool table you’ve ever played on was perfectly even, and that you’ve never noticed any substantial curvature when looking at the horizon from the ground. Qualitative research is the methodology researchers use to gain deep contextual understandings of users via non-numerical means and direct observations. Lifestyle immersion is when you attend an event, such as a party or a family gathering. Similarly, the results of the interview also, to some extent, depend on a subjective interpretation of what the participant has told you. The project is concluded with qualitative … WPForms weekly inspiration and design tips in your inbox. It’s the difference, for example, between how someone typically feels when they go for a morning run vs. how long they do it for. In-home videos allow you to observe how users interact with your product in real life, at home. In the exercise interview, you could follow up answers that might be interpreted in different ways with a quick summary of what you believe the participant has said – e.g., “You said that you find it difficult to exercise in the evening and that you would rather watch TV, so is it correctly understood that you think evenings are for more relaxing activities, or is it something else?”. While there are many approaches to qualitative research, they tend to be flexible and focus on retaining rich meaning when interpreting data.

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